The Myth of the American Frontier Still Shapes U.S. Racial Divides

J.M. Opal, McGill University When Americans study their 19th-century history, they tend to look at its great conflicts, especially the epic clash over slavery. They are less likely to recall its broad areas of agreement. But what if those agreements are still shaping the present? What if Americans are still coping with their effects? The…

How Black Slaves Were Routinely Sold as ‘Specimens’ to Ambitious White Doctors

The history of human experimentation is as old as the practice of medicine and in the modern era has always targeted disadvantaged, marginalised, institutionalised, stigmatised and vulnerable populations: prisoners, the condemned, orphans, the mentally ill, students, the poor, women, the disabled, children, peoples of colour, indigenous peoples and the enslaved. Human subject research is evident…